Fluid Handling & System Design
NCS Fluid Handling Systems Professional Engineers and Fluid Handling System Designers make sure that they look into every aspect of the job such as static head, atmospheric pressure, NPSH, and a long list summarized below.
As discussed many times in these forums, with the proper designing of Water Handling Systems, Diversion or Bypass Designs and Tank Hydro Tests the designer most consider various elements of each situation and project. Project Managers, Project Engineers and Supply Chain personnel representing owners and end users should be aware of the risks of a water management system or hydro test plan that does not incorporate many or all of these extremely important design considerations.
These include but are not limited to:
- Test-water source
- Test-water inlet temperature
- Inlet size
- API fill rates
- Elevation changes
- Available source water
- Source water analysis
- Related Treatments (Chlorine removal) post test filtration
- Erosion controls
- Heating size
- Heater proximity to tank or piping
- Heating in winter (adequate water temperature allowing for changing weather conditions)
- Proper cooling procedures for heated test water disposal
- Proper tank and pipe circulating measures
- Emergency flow reversing procedures
- Location of shell thermometers for monitoring
- Piping or hose layout and distance
- Manway covers (in the case of API 650, tanks need to be designed in accordance with code for finished thicknesses)
- Number and size of valves
- Adequate pipe ventilation
- Vacuum breakers
- Floating roof and seal types and any limitations (if installed in place)
- Pump capabilities
The next in the information series of “Its Not Just Moving Water” and how it applies to our industry, the NCS Fluid Handling Systems Engineering and Design team present and discuss these essential elements in detail.
A common item overlooked by other water management system designers is the “Forces on Pipe Bends” as a major design factor; in some cases they leave it for the civil engineers to deal with. NCS Fluid Handling Systems ensures that these forces are included and properly calculated in system designs we provide. Even though NCS Fluid Handling Systems installations and systems may only be installed on a temporary basis, our systems designers take into consideration these forces when dealing with pipe bends. As a result, the design reduces system vibration, reduces pump vibrations, reduces pipe weld fatigue and possible failure as a result, increasing the overall efficiency and reliability of the entire system.
Newton’s second law can be stated as “the impulse applied to a body is equal to the change in that body momentum.” When fluid enters or exits a pipe bend, it goes through a series of forces and the momentum is changed. The mass flow rate remains constant. The fluid is in a constant path of flow hence static pressure must be included in the analysis. NCS designers observe the forces on fluid particle and quantify them in kilo newton (KN).
(Lindeburg, 2014, pp. 9-14)